中国最慷慨的百名慈善家

first_img近几十年来中国逐步成长为全球经济引擎,其重要性日益加剧。关于该国经济增长的任何风吹草动,或诸如最近几周的股市波动,都会撼动国际市场。伴随中国经济的迅猛增长,很多人积累起了巨额财富。然而,关于第一代白手起家的富翁以及他们是如何回报社会的,却鲜有报道。现在,哈佛大学肯尼迪政府学院艾什民主治理与创新中心的研究员们首次勾勒了中国大陆2015年前100位捐赠者的慈善行为。研究不仅涵盖他们的身份以及财产,还包括他们自身所处的行业、捐赠额、所支持的行业以及受益的领域。“人们现在极其关注中国最富有人群的行为习惯。三十年前,每个人都一样的贫穷,” 领导此项目数据收集和网站设计的哈佛大学肯尼迪政府学院公共管理硕士毕业生、艾什民主治理与创新中心研究员魏沛然说道。“在慈善行业,诸如捐赠领域和受益群体等数据,不仅对于普通人,而且对于政府、企业和想要为这个社会做出贡献的人都是一件非常重要的工具。慈善家的影响力和财力确实很重要。”哈佛肯尼迪学院最新研究成果显示了2015年中国最慷慨的100位慈善家来自哪里(红色圆圈),哪些省市受益最多(黄色圆圈)。广东和北京等富裕省市捐赠数量最多,收到的也最多;然而,西藏和新疆等较贫困的地区鲜有受益。来源:中国慈善项目,艾什民主治理与创新中心。最新成立的“中国慈善项目”及其相关网站旨在为不断进行的关于中国慈善捐赠模式和趋势的研究提供重要的交互性数据,并成为一个服务非营利性组织、政府、学术界和媒体的数据库。研究员们希望通过具体量化慈善家年度捐赠数据,以帮助未来捐款人在做捐赠决定时,能做出更正确的选择,同时也希望能够通过建立“慷慨指数”在慈善家之间建立起良性竞争。“新兴富裕阶层非常关注如何更有效并有意义地进行捐赠,” 魏沛然还说,“因为他们是第一代富起来的人,所以他们对什么是回馈社会的最好方法了解并不多。”“中国正处在镀金时代,而中国缺乏美国在镀金时代的宗教基础和价值体系……因此并不存在关于如何及怎样捐赠的行为守则,”哈佛大学肯尼迪政府学院艾什民主治理与创新中心中国项目主任康义德说:“这也是为什么我们应该引导他们的捐赠行为。”报告显示,上榜的前100名慈善家中绝大多数为男性,平均年龄为54岁,多数来自于商业和政府活动频繁的富裕省市,例如广东、北京和福建。上榜慈善家们更倾向于资助位于其家乡的机构,这也意味着西藏、新疆和云南等贫困地区鲜少受益。乘着快速城镇化带来对住房急剧需求的东风,榜单上的许多慈善家靠房地产生意致富。大多数房地产业的慈善家们选择通过在顶级学府设立奖学金、冠名教学楼等方式捐助教育产业。令人意外的是,尽管中国空气污染问题严重,但榜单上的慈善家们很少捐助环保组织。针对此现象,魏沛然的解释为,对慈善家来说,资助带来高社会效益且立竿见影的教育产业远比捐赠解决空气污染、水污染等极具挑战性且需长期努力的环保项目更具吸引力。魏沛然指出:“毫无疑问,慈善家们希望看到自己在榜单中的排名,并关注其他慈善家的动向,并且了解如何在未来做得更好。我认为,政府对这样的榜单也会很感兴趣,因为以前从未有过对慈善活动的地域属性做如此详尽分析的报告。”他还提到:“我们研究慈善家地域属性的另一个原因是为非政府组织提供便利。通过我们的报告,非政府组织能够清晰地了解,每年各个地区对慈善投入最大的慈善家是谁。”因为中国的慈善事业相对年轻,因此与捐赠有关的记录非常分散,几乎没有类似捐赠者数据库或美国国税局990表这样的权威数据来源。研究员们通过各种渠道对数据进行广泛验证,包括各种公开信息、媒体报导、访谈以及其他官方渠道。宏观上看,中国慈善行业规模还相对很小。2014年,中国全国慈善捐赠总额占国内生产总值的比重为0.1%。在美国,该比例为2%。印度为0.4%,俄罗斯则为0.01%。中国是全球第二大经济体,“因此对于中国人来说,前路漫长,” 魏沛然说道。在经历了过去十几年的经济和社会巨变后,中国富有精英们有很强的意愿希望将其个人和家庭传承下去,而并不是为了获得很少的税收优惠而捐赠。“我认为他们这样做的部分动????是为自己的子女及后辈创造一个路线图,不仅是如何回馈社会,更重要的是给后辈灌输什么是最重要的事,”康义德说。“他们深深担忧第二代,更别说第三代子孙,担心他们并不会非常成功。这并不仅因为他们无须经历同样的经济困难和文革时期的心理创伤,而是他们缺乏来自于中国传统社会紧密社会联系的好处。”魏沛然说,很多中国富豪对美国的富豪感动好奇,比如洛克菲勒家族,他们也对美国慈善领域的优秀实践感兴趣。他们中的很多人已经建立了自己的基金会,也会参考美国慈善家安德鲁·卡内基和范德比尔特的做法。“在美国有效的实践可能在中国不奏效,所以他们必须拿出适用于中国社会的解决方案,”魏沛然说。这一代富豪从旧有的共产主义经济体制的私有化过程中受益,这有着重要的社会意义,比如新兴富有阶层如何与政府互动,康徳义说。“一个重要的问题是,这些富豪在中国更为广泛的政治、社会、经济领域中扮演何种角色。”因为财富集中程度很高,资本外流始终是个让中国政府担忧的问题。中资银行纷纷开发私人理财产品,以满足富有人群需求,并防止他们把资本转向欧美银行。“很长时间以来,人们都很关注这类人群的需求、期望以及动机,因为他们具有显著的经济影响力,”康义德说。现在中国的慈善家们已经积攒起大量财富,他们正想方设法希望通过个人的力量,建立起自身基金会,从而解决区域之间不均衡的问题,“但是他们要跟政府打交道,而政府尚未建立起允许这种职业化行为发生的法规,” 康义德说。“他们在充满挑战和困难的政策环境下运作,因此尚不清楚他们如何得以可持续地发展,” 康义德说,“这就是为什么前路漫长的原因。”last_img read more

AP analysis: Federal executions likely a COVID superspreader

first_imgWASHINGTON (AP) — The executions at the end of Donald Trump’s presidency, completed in short windows over a few weeks, likely acted as a superspreader event. That’s according to records reviewed by The Associated Press. It was something health experts had warned could happen when the Justice Department insisted on resuming executions during a pandemic. By the end of 2020, 70% of death row inmates were sick with COVID-19. Guards were ill. Traveling prisons staff on the execution team had the virus. So did media witnesses, who may have unknowingly infected others when they returned home because they were never told about the spreading cases.last_img

Allen & Overy to sign in City

first_imgTo access this article REGISTER NOWWould you like print copies, app and digital replica access too? SUBSCRIBE for as little as £5 per week. Would you like to read more?Register for free to finish this article.Sign up now for the following benefits:Four FREE articles of your choice per monthBreaking news, comment and analysis from industry experts as it happensChoose from our portfolio of email newsletterslast_img

The Arsenal board break promises and can’t be trusted, says former Gunners striker Kevin Campbell

first_imgAdvertisement Advertisement Comment Kevin Campbell (c) won the league title with Arsenal in 1991 (Picture: Getty Images/Getty Images)‘If we’re brutally honest this board, since leaving Highbury, have made all these promises and haven’t backed the promises up.‘They haven’t backed Unai Emery properly and now the chickens are coming home to roost. Now they’re going to have to do something.‘I don’t trust the board, I’ve got to be honest. It seems like they’re interested in other things than the playing staff.‘There are a lot of angry Arsenal fans now because, remember, they got sold a dream leaving Highbury.‘The fantastic Emirates Stadium, they were told they were going to compete at the elite level and it just hasn’t happened.’More: FootballRio Ferdinand urges Ole Gunnar Solskjaer to drop Manchester United starChelsea defender Fikayo Tomori reveals why he made U-turn over transfer deadline day moveMikel Arteta rates Thomas Partey’s chances of making his Arsenal debut vs Man CityFreddie Ljungberg is in temporary charge of the side and will be hoping that good results put him in line to take the job on a permanent basis.Club director Josh Kroenke said of the Swede: ‘We feel he is the right person in the moment to take the club forward.‘We started to fall short of several goals that we set. We still feel we can achieve those goals this season.‘First and foremost, Freddie has Arsenal DNA. Obviously he was a player here for a number of years, the supporters know him very well and he’s worked diligently behind the scenes for the past several years.‘My message to Freddie and the players was let’s get back to basics and most importantly let’s get back to having some fun.’MORE: Why Freddie Ljungberg has started Kieran Tierney on bench for Arsenal’s clash with NorwichMORE: Why Arsenal have cooled interest in Nuno Espirito Santo Phil HaighSunday 1 Dec 2019 1:55 pmShare this article via facebookShare this article via twitterShare this article via messengerShare this with Share this article via emailShare this article via flipboardCopy link The Arsenal board break promises and can’t be trusted, says former Gunners striker Kevin Campbell Vinai Venkatesham Arsenal’s managing director, Raul Sanllehi Arsenal’s head of football and Edu the technical director have come in for criticism (Picture: Getty Images)The Arsenal board cannot be trusted to follow through on their promises, believes former Gunners striker Kevin Campbell.Sunday afternoon sees Arsenal’s first game since Unai Emery was sacked, as they take on Norwich in the Premier League at Carrow Road.The Spaniard was dismissed after going seven games without a win in all competitions and the side languishing in ninth in the Premier League.Campbell, who played for the Gunners from 1988-1995, feels that the state of the club is no real surprise and the Arsenal hierarchy have simply not delivered on promises that date back to leaving Highbury for the Emirates in 2006.AdvertisementAdvertisementADVERTISEMENT‘What’s been happening at Arsenal, it’s been coming,’ Campbell told talkSPORT.last_img read more

IMCA Modifieds chase $3,000 check at I-30’s Ed Jordan Memorial

first_imgLITTLE ROCK, Ark. – A top check of $3,000 is at stake this Saturday, July 21 at I-30 Speedway’s sixth annual Ed Jordan Memorial for IMCA Modifieds.A minimum of $300 will be paid to start the Fast Shafts All-Star Invitational ballot qualifier.Entry fee is $100 and includes the driver’s pit pass if paid by July 19. IMCA Speedway Motors Weekly Racing National, Jet Racing Central Region, Arkansas State and track points will be awarded.Spectator admission is $12 for adults, $1 for kids ages 6-12 and free for five and under. Pit passes are $30.Pit gates and the grandstand open at 5 p.m. Hot laps are at 7 p.m. with racing to follow.More information is available by calling 501 455-4567, at the www.i-30speedway.com website and on Facebook.Gates open at 6 p.m. for Thursday’s open test and tune. Pit passes are 415 and grandstand admission is free.last_img read more

CECAFA: Minnows Eritrea stun Kenya, set up Uganda final

first_img Uganda 1 Tanzania 0Nairobi, Kenya | AFP |  Unheralded Eritrea stunned holders Kenya 4-1 to reach their first Cecafa Challenge Cup final in Kampala on Tuesday.The Eritreans are competing at the Central and Eastern African eight-team tournament after years in the wilderness due to a regional war and their players absconding.The multi-ethnic nation of less than 5 million who are 206th in the FIFA rankings, dominated the more experienced Kenyans with good ball control and crisp passes.The Red Sea Camels, as Eritrea are known, were deservedly rewarded in the ninth minute when Kenyan striker Oscar Wamalwa headed into his own net while attempting to clear a dangerous cross off the line.Eritrea then extended their lead four minutes into the second half when Abel Solomon Okbray’s thunderous shot beat the Kenyan ‘keeper Samuel Odhiambo all the way.Kenya pulled one back when Wamalwa, who turned from villain to hero, tapped home from close range in the 52nd minute. But second half substitute Michael Habte and Robel Abreha added two more goals for Eritrea to complete the biggest upset in the history of the tournament.Eritrea coach Efrem Alemseghed was elated with the victory.“I am very happy that my young team is through to the final for the first time. We mastered Kenya’s approach and knew what to do,” said Alemseghed.Eritrea will take on Uganda in the final on December 19. The two sides also met in the group stage with the Ugandans winning 2-0.The Ugandan Cranes, who have won the tournament more than any other team, saw off the challenge of neighbours Tanzania in the second semi-final after winning 1-0. Share on: WhatsAppcenter_img Uganda beat Tanzania 1-0. They next face Eritrea. PHOTO FUFA MEDIA Eritrea  4 Kenya 1last_img read more